I have been invited to Haiti by â€œHaiti Solidarityâ€ so am off there shortly. I will be staying and meeting with women activists from the Lavalas movement. I have a pretty good knowledge of Haitian history and contemporary politics but there is always more to learn and I needed to focus on details. So for the past month I have immersed myself in all things Haitian from talking with people – (all of a sudden I keep meeting Haitians!), reading books and news archives, listening to interviews and listening to Haitian music. The music has been a real revelation â€“ listening to the drum rhythms is like I am listening to some deep Yoruba drumming and you begin to realise that the majority of Haitian people are still very connected to Africa.
Getting to grips with the complexities and intrigues of Haitian politics is no easy task. I believe the only way you can begin to grasp what has happened in Haiti over the past 10 years, and why, is by going back to the beginning and following the countryâ€™s history through to the present. Otherwise you are left frustrated and with too many unanswered questions.
I started with a re-reading of C.L.R. James account of the Haitian revolution, â€œThe Black Jacobinsâ€ and ended with â€œAn Unbroken Agony: Haiti from Revolution to the Kidnapping of a Presidentâ€ by Randall Robinson.
In the early hours of February 29th 2004, democratically elected President, Jean-Bertrand Aristide and his wife Mildred were forced to leave their home under escort of US military and summarily marched onto an unmarked plane whose destination they did not know and were not told.
An Unbroken Agony presents a detailed day by day and hour by hour account of the immediate events leading to the kidnapping and removal of President Aristide. Noted activist and one of the few truly progressive African American voices, Randall Robinson, sets down the facts of the Coup Dâ€™Etat, side by side with his own commentary. He provides the evidence that the US was actively involved while France was directly complicit in the Coup that ousted Aristide and saw him flown, along with his with wife to the Central African Republic. Once there, they were literally dumped off the plane and for all intense and purposes held prisoner.
Robinson begins with an historical overview of Haiti from â€œthe most fateful of daysâ€ in 1492 when Christopher Columbus landed on the shores of the island he named Hispaniola but which the indigenous people called Ayiti to the only successful slave revolt in history which led to an independent nation in 1804. The struggle for emancipation by the Black Jacobins was led by Toussaint Lâ€™Ouverture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines and denied France the most profitable slave economy in the world. Not only was Haiti the most profitable, it was also arguably the most cruel. For example slaves were slaughtered for the amusement of their French masters and on one occasion, men were bayoneted and then dogs were let loose to rip them to shreds and devour them.
The history of Haiti is often a tale of history repeating itself. In response to the creation of the â€œfirst free republic in the Americasâ€ the US and Europe imposed a global embargo and France demanded that Haiti pay $21 billion (in todayâ€™s dollars) as compensation for loss of itâ€™s slaves and territory. Thus right from the beginning the new country found itself in a debt which it has never recovered from. In 1915 the US occupied Haiti for 19 years and, despite independence, the wealth of the country was held in the hands of a tiny minority and remains so till today. Robinson spends a whole chapter discussing class and caste in Haiti from itâ€™s historical roots to the present. A society that saw itself as almost â€œa race apart from the large majority of Haitian peopleâ€.
â€œIn Haiti today color remains as insuperable a barrier to social progress as everâ€. â€¦.Not even the least controversial of President Aristideâ€™s proposed social reforms were conceded by his lighter-skinned and more privileged fellow citizens. Not even his proposal to strike the word peasant as a category of citizenship from the national birth certificate for that all rural blacks bore.â€
He continues with a quote from Langston Hughes
â€œIt was in Haiti that I first realised how class lines may cut across color lines within a race, and how dark people of the same nationality may scorn those below themâ€
Robinson chronicles the rise to power of Aristide from his early days during the Duvalier years, as a young priest in La Saline, a poor neighbourhood of Port-au-Prince to the populist and much loved leader of the Lavalas family. He details the actions of the various rebel groups supported by the Haitian moneyed classes and businesses and trained and armed by the US.
â€œOver the course of 2003, the Bush administration broadened its assault on Haiti into a crippling, multipronged campaign. In addition to arming the Duvalierist insurgents and organising Haitiâ€™s tiny, splintered political opposition, the administration moved apace to strangle Haiti, the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, into a state of economic, social and political collapse.â€
President and Mrs Aristideâ€™s last 24 hours in Haiti are detailed hour by hour moving back and forth between their activities and the whereabouts and manoeuvring of the rebels 100km from Port-au-Prince. Robinson goes into great detail to show that neither President Aristide nor his wife changed their routine or cancelled scheduled appointments including an interview with US radio journalist Tavis Smiley. That they were under great pressure during that period is a fact but until the early hours of the morning of the 29th both insisted they were not leaving Haiti. He also shows that despite warnings from the US that Aristide was going to be shot and the rebels were on their way to Port-au-Prince, they were in fact in the area of Gonaives and not moving.
Robinsonâ€™s presentation of Aristide is almost saintly. He does not try to hide his unwavering support of Aristide and his Lavalas party. I’ve read criticisms that Robinson does not address Aristideâ€™s governance and there is only one good guy here and that is Aristide. Whilst I agree he does not cover Aristide’s governance and that the book is partisan, I do not take that as a failing as some have said. Randall Robinson, Maxine Waters and Amy Goodman have time and time again proved their honesty and determination to see justice done. The US on the other hand has a record of lies, deceit, assassinations and attempted assassinations of leaders it does not like, support of rebels against governments it doesnâ€™t like whether they are elected democratically or not. The US has a record of supporting undemocratic oligarchies, monarchies and dictatorships when it suits them.
Randall Robinson set out to write about the history, oppression and punishment of a nation of Black people who dared to resist White Supremacist hegemony and in this he succeeded. The purpose of the book is to chronicle the US governmentâ€™s actions in the support and removal of a democratically elected President. One who was escorted in the dead of night on a US military plane by US military personnel and unceremoniously dumped in Central Africa. As Robinson points out, the irony was that his host/jailer in the Central African Republic was an unelected ruler who came to power via a coup but who was supported financially by the US and whose country was and remains under French ownership.
The book sets the record straight and acts as a counter balance to the wall of lies presented by the US and other Western governments and the media which continues to present the Bush governments version of events without question.
- Originally published at Black Looks